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The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized nutrient content claims for choline, the first to be allowed under the Food & Drug Administration Modernization Act. The choline claims were initiated by Central Soya Company, Inc. To qualify for a "Good source of choline" label claim, a food or supplement must contain 55 mg of choline per serving. To make an "Excellent source of choline" claim, the food or supplement must contain 110 mg per serving. These levels are 10% and 20%, respectively, of the Adequate Intake for choline recently established by the Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes of the Food and Nutrition Board, which is part of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine. Choline is associated with brain and liver function, cardiovascular health, and reproductive development. In 1998, the NAS designated choline an essential nutrient and established an adequate level of intake for choline of 550 mg/day for adult males and lactating females, 450 mg/day for pregnant women, and 425 mg/day for adult females. Lower AI's were set for infants and children of various ages.